Cryptocurrencies

What is it really ? – Cryptocurrencies%

In a context agitated by the health crisis, the year 2020 faced a multitude of challenges in response to the epidemic which has upset many operating paradigms of our bodies and companies. An increase in cybercrime as well as the discussions at the heart of the GDPR tend to highlight the need to be in control of our data and its uses. Decentralization and distribution of data thus appear to be a real consideration in support of the challenges of data transparency. Allied to blockchain, these equally decentralized technologies offer new perspectives. Focus on the subject of decentralized storage with Mickael Canu, founder of the Ternoa project, for Cryptocurrencies.


The centralization of data poses several major limitations today. Could you develop the main considerations for us?

This is a real debate, recurring for several years.

The centralization of data, or more simply the fact of entrusting the data to a single instance, is highlighted because it is used by cloud computing services. In the collective mind, we often tend to confuse the centralization of data with the gathering of data, one implies an instance while the other suggests collection.

We can take the analogy with a house; a centralized system is a system where there is only one access door. Conversely, in a distributed data system, there are several accesses to the house and therefore to its content. When we centralize data, and here, I will use the extreme case of the hard drive that we store at home, we are also not immune to incidents of any kind. can be ; theft, damage, bad backup, all too often we think that this only happens to others but it does not.

What I mean here is that the centralization of data is intimately linked with the security issues of it. So, when you drag & drop a file on Google Drive, it is certainly efficient and centralized, but absolutely nothing is encrypted, which from a security point of view is quite average. Even if this were encrypted, the trusted third party employed, here Google, would in absolute terms be quite able to decrypt your data, because everything is centralized.

Technologies such as blockchain or DAGs offer a form of data decentralization, but in a way that may be incomplete on several aspects, could you develop this consideration?

To come back to the absence of a central control body in the context of decentralization, I consider that a blockchain is not a blockchain if it is owned by a third party, its fundamental principle is to be a tool given to the service to the community, with all that that implies; an open source project and decentralized governance in particular. Regarding the management of data storage, it is more relevant I think to consider all the different types of distributed ledgers (blockchain, DAG, Hyperledger, etc …). In addition, most of the blockchain networks currently deployed are not designed to store files, the proof is that the cost of depositing lightweight files on these networks is very high. We must think of the decentralization of data via the blockchain as a tool and not an end.

The decentralization of data naturally goes further than the use of registers such as blockchain, technologies such as IPFS are also developing in parallel. Could you introduce our readers to this data storage distribution format and its interactions with the blockchain?

IPFS stands for Inter Planetary File System, it is a Peer-to-Peer data storage network. When we consider data storage, the potentially exploitable solutions are very hybrid.

It all depends on how you think about the storage and transfer of information. For example, when using storage services that leverage the blockchain, it is not the file that is stored directly on the network, but in the vast majority of cases it is a hash. We could think of the hash as a link to our file. Taken together, blockchain and IPFS can be very efficient at storing data: we effectively combine storage register and actual storage.

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In these models, it is the users of the network who participate in the storage of the data, by receiving a piece of file. This piece of file is shared in several copies on several users in order to guarantee the decentralization of its storage.

Subsequently, when you want to recover the file, you have to reassemble it, and therefore efficiently go through the network that collects the different pieces in order to return it to us. There are several projects currently taking place in this world, including Filecoin, Storj, and Airwave. In fact, for me, the real challenge of developing these solutions is often more in the UX (user experience) than in the technical challenges of implementation. To sum up, blockchain and decentralized storage technologies like IPFS must be crossed in my opinion.

It is even today a real opportunity for economic competitiveness, because as surprising as it may seem, the decentralized storage solution, although it involves many copies of the same file, costs significantly less than storage. classic centralized.

Ternoa, the project you are carrying is a use case of this association. Could you introduce us to the use case?

Ternoa is a blockchain intended for storage encryption and data transmission. We are developing a blockchain that responds to timeless data storage.

Ternoa thus makes it possible to encrypt and encrypt data: when we want to use the service to store a file, we set up a time capsule in which we store all the data that the user wants and that we compress. The system then gives a key to the user of which it is the sole holder and which allows the decryption of the contents of the time capsule.

As for the encrypted information, it is cut into very many parts and distributed among the various users of the network who can do nothing else except store it. We go through several decentralization operators, because we want to be able to guarantee the viability of our system even in the worst scenarios. The recomposition of files is managed off-chain, that is to say outside the blockchain network, also thanks to a system of keys.

Several protocols govern the delivery of the time capsule, which is actually an NFT. Network users are also paid using our token to agree to store data. I think Ternoa is a very good example of a coupling between distributed ledger and distributed storage, which even allows a tokenomy dimension to be mixed in: this is also an advantage of decentralized storage.

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Decentralized storage seems particularly flexible. At the heart of contemporary themes concerning data issues, new technologies and new couplings are emerging in order to shake up the various paradigms of centralized data storage. Many projects are emerging with the ambition to change these paradigms in favor of a decentralized and distributed ecosystem. However, these services are still only in the infancy of their existence and development, which means considering their potential with caution, particularly from a safety and efficiency point of view. But who knows, maybe in a few millennia, the opening of Ternoa time capsules from our time will shake up the conclusion of my article and prove the inevitability of decentralized storage.

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